Fun questions to ask kids
In several groups Fun questions to ask kids during the semester, sessions were held on the theory of mechanisms and machines using traditional and innovative methods. Let us give an example to illustrate it more clearly. At the session on the theory of mechanisms and machines the topic “Synthesis of lever mechanisms” is studied. At the lesson, the teacher applies the case study method. The tasks of the synthesis of lever mechanisms in general are complex tasks of optimal design, including the stages of structural, kinematic and dynamic calculation. Therefore, to simplify the solution, private problems are considered, which take into account only some (basic) design conditions. Depending on the initial data, students are offered tasks in the form of a case. The group is divided into subgroups and each subgroup is given the task. During the discussion, students look for solutions, using the knowledge and mathematical apparatus obtained earlier, express their opinion, and defend their point of view, whatever it may be. Through discussion, students learn to think creatively and make non-standard decisions. This will be useful for their future professional activity, facing problems in the workplace, they can fun questions to ask students safely make decisions and streamline production processes. As a result of the discussion, the instructor brings students to the general procedure for designing a lever mechanism, which is summarized as follows:
- A kinematic scheme is synthesized (the lengths of the links are determined by the given conditions).
- The simplified law of movement of an input link is accepted, speeds and accelerations of links are defined, approximate power calculation (reactions in kinematic pairs are defined) is made.
- Sections of the links are selected and their masses are determined by the efforts found.
- The forces and masses are brought together, the flywheel is selected and the true law of the link motion is determined.
- At the found law of movement of a link of reduction there are the specified values of speeds and accelerations, more exact values of reactions are defined and check of durability and rigidity of links is made. The sizes of sections and masses of links are consistently specified.
After performance of all groups, the teacher has summed up results with instructions on widespread errors, has drawn conclusions.
For qualitative mastering of knowledge, a combined method was applied at a lecture in the same group, at another lesson, i.e. teachers applied two methods at once: conference lecture and discussion lecture. Moreover, two instructors participate in the lecture. One of them is an experienced master and a young specialist. During the lecture, everyone is involved in the educational process, both teachers and students. Lesson ceases to be monotonous, not interesting process, and throughout the lecture keeps the attention of the audience. And the audience itself becomes an active participant. It is no accident that the class is led by two teachers, one teacher with rich professional experience, and a young specialist. As a result of joint collaboration, experience is transferred from the older generation to the younger one, which in itself is valuable and expensive. The same combination of methods was used in practical and laboratory classes (visualization method – case study method; round table imitation method), etc.
Due to their professional activity, having visited a large number of classes and discussed the results with their colleagues, one can draw some conclusions: all these methods allow, first of all, students to master the discipline creatively. The teacher himself, in preparation for the class, acts as a researcher, a pioneer, who chooses only the most important thing from the whole huge layer of knowledge. In close contact with the student, he guides them, gives them the opportunity to make the best decision for themselves. Thus, having made a decision, they understand that they are responsible for it. In all this process, the teacher himself acts as a moderator. It immediately shows how well the trainees use the knowledge they have received and how effectively they manipulate the information they have received. Still, there are some fears that trainees may draw the wrong conclusions for themselves when discussing the problem. Therefore, in general, the lesson may be confusing. Only by relying on their pedagogical intuition can this mishap be avoided. The master has a very important role to play here.